How FSM works

The reliable FSM process assures the continued effectiveness of imidacloprid

Collection
Each year, thousands of flea eggs are collected by a global network of veterinarians who send samples to investigating laboratories for analysis

Step 1: Diagnostic dose larval bioassay

Diagnostic dose larval bioassay
Evaluation of flea eggs in test media containing a screening dose of imidacloprid2
At 28 days, live adult fleas and pupae are counted

  • Survival < 5%, no further evaluation
  • Survival ≥ 5%, isolate is progressed to Step 2

Step 2: Full dose response larval bioassay

Full dose response larval bioassay
Isolates identified in Step 1 are propagated and re-tested at the diagnostic dose. If survival ≥ 5% is confirmed a full dose response test, with a range of test media concentrations, and probit analysis is conducted.3

To learn more about probit analysis,

Step 3: 
In vivo testing

In vivo testing
Isolates identified in step 2 to have potentially reduced susceptibility are then tested on dogs

To date, no isolate has ever progressed beyond step 2

Byron L. Blagburn, MS, PhD